Anazarbus (Ancient Greek: Ἀναζαρβός, medieval Ain Zarba; modern Anavarza) was an ancient Cilician city and (arch)bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic Titular See.
It was situated in Anatolia in modern Turkey, in the present Çukurova (or classical Aleian plain) about 15 km west of the main stream of the present Ceyhan River (or classical Pyramus river) and near its tributary the Sempas Su.
A lofty isolated ridge formed its acropolis. Though some of the masonry in the ruins is certainly pre-Roman, the Suda’s identification of it with Cyinda, famous as a treasure city in the wars of Eumenes of Cardia, cannot be accepted in the face of Strabo’s express location of Cyinda in western Cilicia.
It was founded by Assyrians. Under the early Roman empire the place was known as Caesarea, and was the Metropolis (capital) of Late Roman province Cilicia Secunda. It was the home of the poet Oppian.
Rebuilt by the Byzantine emperor Justin I after an earthquake in the 6th century, it became Justinopolis (525); but the old native name persisted, and when Thoros I, king of Lesser Armenia, made it his capital early in the 12th century, it was known as Anazarva.