THE EGYPTIAN BAZAAR (SPICE MARKET)
The L-shaped bazaar has two large main gates and four smaller, and is built of stone and brick, rather than timber like other bazaars of the period. At the corner where the two arms meet is a prayer dome and a place from which the call to prayer was chanted. The main entrances at the extremities of the two arms are in the form of two-storey portals with six-arch colonnades. These portals once housed two commercial courts, one to settle disagreements between tradesmen, and the other between tradesmen and customers. The Egyptian Bazaar is part of the complex of Yeni Mosque, construction of which began during the reign of Mehmed III (1595-1603) and was completed in 1663 by the architect Mustafa Aga for Hatice Turhan Sultan, mother of Mehmed IV (1648-1687). It was therefore originally known as the Yeni Bazaar or Valide Bazaar, valide meaning mother. Since the spices and drugs sold in the bazaar arrived by ships from Egypt which unloaded their cargos nearby, in time it came to be known as the Egyptian Bazaar. In the early years the Egyptian Bazaar was occupied by shops selling cotton as well as pharmaceuticals. It is one of the loveliest classical style bazaars in Istanbul, and its L shape is typical of the arasta type of bazaar consisting of rows of shops devoted to the same trade. The six gates of the Egyptian Bazaar are the main Eminönü Gate, Balikpazari (formerly Tahmis) Gate, Ketenciler Gate, Çiçekpazari Gate, Yeni Cami Gate and Bahçe (formerly Haseki) Gate.
Their myriad store of ingredients included dried flowers, leaves, stems, seeds, tree bark and roots, among them many still commonly used for culinary purposes and home remedies today, such as sage, rosemary, morning glory, hemp, marsh mallow, thyme, momordica, violet, lemon balm, basil, summer savory, nettle, and mahaleb. The pharmacists were at the same time perfumers, who prepared fragrant essences. Today there are just nine shops selling herbs and spices in the bazaar, the others selling such a wide range of goods as jewellery, furniture, meat, dried nuts and fruits, haberdashery, baskets, perfumes, and confectionery. The dried fruit and nut shops are almost as fascinating as the spice shops, with their tempting range of pistachio nuts, almonds, hazelnuts, dried figs, dried peaches, raisins, coconut and many others. There are also grocery shops selling many varieties of jam – such as quince, sour cherry, apricot, strawberry and fig, delicious cheeses, preserved meats and sausages, and different kinds of honey.
On the upper floor of the portal at the south gate is a famous restaurant, Pandeli, which has been serving Turkish cuisine here for a hundred years. On the walls are proudly displayed newspaper cuttings about the restaurant’ famous guests, including Mustafa Kemal Atatürk who came to eat here both during Ottoman times and after the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Other celebrated patrons of Pandeli were the poet Yahya Kemal Beyatli and novelist Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar.
There are also small shops along the outer walls of the Egyptian Bazaar, fishmongers to the north and pet shops and flower shops to the south. So although the character of the Egyptian Bazaar has changed since Ottoman times, the variety of goods to be found here make it if anything more colourful than it was.